***THE EVOLUTION OF THE HUMAN GOVERNMENT***
-URANTIA-

As soon as the man partially solved the problem of earning the material life, he found the task of regulating the human relations. The development of the industry demanded law, order and social adaptation; this way, the private property required of Government.

In an evolutionary world as the Earth, the antagonisms and the contradictions are natural; therefore, the Social Peace is only gotten by some type of system of Social Regulation. The Social Regulation is inseparable from the Social Organization, and the association implies controlling authority. The Government demands to coordinate the antagonisms of the tribes, clans, families and individuals.

The Government is developed "unconsciously" and evolves by trial and errors, and it is valuable for the survival; therefore, it becomes traditional. The Anarchy increased the misery, but little by little it arose and is arising a Super Government and a Super System of Law and Order. The dominant demands of fight for the existence are those that take the man for the progressive way of the civilization.

1. GENESIS OF THE WAR

The War is the state and natural patrimony of the primitive man in evolution; the Peace is the social meter that measures the progress of the civilization. Before the partial socialization of the races in advance, the man was excessively individualistic, extremely insecure and incredibly quarrelsome. The Violence is the law of the primitive nature. The Hostility is the automatic reaction of the children of the primitive nature; therefore, the “war” is not but the same taken to a collective expression. It thunders where and when the structure of the civilization is overloaded due to the tremendous complications from the progress of the society, and it always results in a violent and disastrous before the primitive methods of abrupt adaptation, irritating the human inter-associations.

The War is a bestial reaction before the misunderstandings and irritations. The Peace results from the civilized solution of all problem and difficulty of all nature. The SANGIK race, and later the ADAMITES and NODITES for then decadent, were belligerent. Soon the ANDONITES were taught the “rule of gold” [Conduct Code], and even today, their Eskimo descendants live encircled in great measure under that code; among them the customs are ingrained and they are relatively free of violent antagonisms.

ANDON taught his children to dissipate the quarrels, hitting a tree with a stick at the same time that he renounced to the tree, and the first one to break the stick came out victorious. Soon the ANDONITES dissipated the disputes celebrating a public act, in which the fighters were insulted and ridiculed mutually, then the public determined the winner with their applauses.

But it could not happen such a phenomenon of war until the society didn't evolve enough to really experience periods of peace, sanctioning the belligerent proceeding. The same concept of war implies certain organization degree.

With the emergence of the social groupings, the personal irritations began to be submerged to the feelings of the group, and this promoted the zeal for the internal tribal tranquility, but at the cost of the intertribal peace. This way, the peace was enjoyed first inside the group or tribe, at the mercy of the aversion and hate that they always had against strange groups. The primitive man considered that to spill a foreigner's blood was a virtue for his tribe.

But, in a principle, the above-mentioned didn't result. When the primitive caciques tried to level misunderstandings, they were often seen in the necessity of allowing the tribal combats by stoning at least once a year. The clan was divided in two groups that liberated a battle from sunrise to sunset, without another reason that the pure pleasure of making it, but the truth is that they liked the fight.

The “war” lasts because the man is still a human in advance with primitive stragglers that evolve from an animal, and all the animals by nature are belligerent. Among the primitive causes of war it figures the following:

  1. The Hunger- It took to raids of foods. Because the shortage of lands always caused wars during these arduous fights, the primitive peaceful tribes were practically exterminated.
  2. The Shortage of Women- An effort to raise the shortage of domestic help. The kidnapping of women always motivated war.
  3. The Vanity- Wanted of exhibiting tribal courage. Superior groups fought to impose their way of life to the inferior peoples.
  4. The Slaves- The necessity of recruits for works in the labor sectors.
  5. The Vengeance- It was reason of war if a tribe believed that another neighboring tribe had caused the death of one of them. They stayed mourning until one victim was brought back. The war of vengeance lasted until relatively recent times.
  6. The Recreation- The youths of these primitive times considered the war like a form of amusement. If some valid and enough pretext didn't arise to war, or if the peace pressed them, then the neighboring tribes accustomed to begin semi-cordial combats, making incursions of festival character in order to enjoy a battle mockery.
  7. The Religion- The desire to make converts to the cult. All the primitive religions sanctioned the war. Only in recent times, the religion began to be an excuse to untie the war; but the “primitive priests” unfortunately used to be allied with the military power. Among the big pacific negotiations that have been carried out in the planet through the ages, figure the effort to emancipate the church from the State.

These primitive tribes always liberated wars on behalf of their gods for order of their caciques or quack doctors. The Hebrews believed in a “God of the battles”; the narration of the invasion of the “Midianites” is a typical story of the atrocious cruelty of the old tribal wars. This attack, with the cruel slaughter of all the males and later on of all the children and girls that were not virgin, it would have not been worthy in the customs of one tribal cacique from two hundred thousand years ago. This way, all the narrated wars from then were executed on behalf of that supposed “Lord God of Israel”.

This is a narrative of the evolution of the society -the natural treatment to the problems of the races-, the man forging their own destination in the face of the earth. We should know firmly that the DEITY doesn't incite such cruelties, in spite of the primitive man's malicious tendencies of attributing all responsibility to his gods.

The military “compassion” has taken a long time in arriving to the mankind. Even when a woman, called Deborah, that governed the Hebrews, persisted with the same cruelty of previous times and in great scale when conquering the gentiles, her generals did that the “whole enemy army fell under the edge of the sword until no one was left alive”.

Very early in the history of the human race poisoned weapons were used and it was practiced all kinds of mutilations. Saul didn't hesitate in demanding from David one hundred Philistine foreskins as booty for his daughter Michal.

In the primitive wars, tribes fought against tribes; but later on, it arose to bind a dispute between two “individuals” from different tribes, instead of fighting the two tribes. The two disputants were committed to be debated in duel. It also ended up being a custom that two armies bet the whole result of the competition between the representatives from each side. This was the case of David and Goliath.

The first tuning of the war was the taking of prisoners, then the woman's discharge in the hostilities and later came the recognition of the “non combatants”. It didn't take long in develope military chastes and permanent armies to stay to tone with the growing complexity of the combats. Soon these warriors were prohibited to be associated with women, and long time ago the women ceased of fighting, although they continued feeding, taking care and urging the soldiers to battle.

The practice of Declaring the war represented a great progress. Since such intention declarations to war denounced the arrival of a sense of justice, of more civilized treatments, and this was continued by the gradual development of the regulations from the “civilized war”. Very soon it was a costume not combating near religious places, and later on it was incremented not combating in sacred days. Then the general recognition of the asylum right came, and the political fugitives received protection.

This way the war gradually evolved, from the hunt of the primitive man until the achievement of a more orderly system among the “civilized nations”. Undoubtedly, a highly friendly world social attitude takes a lot of time in displacing the hostile and belligerent attitude of the enemy from the primitive man's genetic residue in the way of evolution.
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2. THE SOCIAL VALUE OF WAR

In past times, a violent war instituted sudden social changes, opening the way to the demanded adoption of new ideas, thing that had not taken place in natural form in ten thousand years. The terrible price that it was necessary to pay for these undeniable advantages brought by the wars, was that the society while the war, heady was happening, it was temporarily put back to the tremendous savagery, and the civilized reason had to resign. The War has been as a strong medicine, very costly and dangerous; although, it is often good to cure certain social wrongs but sometimes kills the patient: It destroys the Society.

The constant necessity of the national defense produced many social, new and improved adjustments. The society of today enjoys the benefit of numerous useful innovations that primitively were completely military, and it is even owed to the war the dance, whose primitive form was a military exercise.

The War has had social value for the last civilizations, since:

  1. Imposed Discipline and demanded Cooperation.
  2. Rewarded the Rightness and the Value.
  3. Fomented and solidified the nationalism, for then required.
  4. Destroyed the weak and idler people.
  5. Dissolved the illusion of the primitive equality, instead selectively stratified the Society.

The War has had certain selective and evolutionary value, but This and the Slavery should be discarded little by little in some moment and in the measure that the Global Society progresses. The Olden Wars promoted the trips and the cultural interchanges; and these now are better for the modern methods of transport and communication. The Olden Wars strengthened the nations, but the Modern Wars definitively disrupt the civilized culture. The Olden Wars produced havocs in the inferior breeds of the human race; and the net result of the Modern Wars is the selective destruction of the “superior breed” of the humanity. The Olden Wars promoted the “organization” and the “efficiency”, but the Modern Wars have become an excessive objective of the modern industry. In the past time the War was a social ferment that impelled forward the civilization, but the same result of today is achieved better by the “interest” and the “invention”. The Olden Wars were supported with the concept of a “God of the battles”, but the modern man is learning that “God is Love”. The Olden War has been good for many valuable objectives in the past, and it has been an indispensable scaffolding in the construction of the civilization; but the Modern War is becoming obsolete and in total cultural bankruptcy, in enlarged steps. Today it is unable to produce dividends of social benefit and in some proportional way to the considerable losses that result from its invocation.

In the past epochs the doctors believed that the “loss of blood” was the cure of many illnesses; but later, on they discovered better treatments for most of these ailments. In the same way, the international “shedding of blood” from the wars should be overcome with discovery for better treatments that cure the national and international ills.

The nations of URANTIA [The Earth] now are at the final border of the enormous fight among the “nationalist-militarism” versus the “industrialism”, and in many aspects this conflict is exactly similar to the secular fight between the “shepherd-hunter” and the “farmer”. But if the Industrialism must triumph over the militarism, then it should be avoided the dangers that lie in it. These world dangers for the industrialism are:

  1. The strong tendency toward the materialism; that is to say, the spiritual blindness.
  2. The cult to the power-wealth; that is to say, the distortion of the values of the Being.
  3. The exaggerated vices of luxury, due to the cultural immaturity.
  4. Those every time bigger dangers of the indifference; that is to say, the insensibility to the Service.
  5. The development of one undesirable racial weakness; that is to say, the biological deterioration.
  6. The great threat of standardized industrial slavery; that is to say, stagnation of the human essence. The work ennobles, but monotony hinders.

The Militarism is autocratic and cruelly savage. It promotes the social organization among the conquerors, but underestimates until disintegrating the conquered ones. The Industrialism is more civilized and must be led in advance in such a way that is promoted the Creativity increasingly and the Independence is fomented. The Society should in every way possible foment the Creativity.

Don't make the mistake of glorifying the War; rather, Discerns deeply of what it has benefited the Society, so you may be able to visualize with great precision the alternatives that offer a continuous progress satisfy the civilization in advance. If such appropriate alternatives are not supplied, then don't doubt that the wars will continue for a long time.

The man for his material condition, will never accept the “peace” like normal way of life; unless, he has already understood entirely and repeatedly that the “Peace” is much more convenient to him, even for his “material wellbeing”. Also until the society judiciously and wisely promote the peaceful alternatives for the satisfaction to that innate tendency of discharging all collective impulses accumulated periodically; and this is to liberate all those “emotions” and “energy” that are deposited constantly in the human being and that are inherent to the instinctive reactions of the self-preservation of the human species.

But for consideration it should be recognized distinctions to the War in its school quality of experience; that it demanded to a race of proud, conceited, idlers, individualists, etc. to undergo an excessive rigorous authority -the supreme executive. This way, the Olden War selected for leadership to the men of innate greatness, but the Modern War however no longer forge this. To discover new altruistic leaders, the current society should appeal to the conquest of the Peace!: Industrial, Scientific and of Social Achievement.
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3. THE PRIMITIVE HUMAN ASSOCIATIONS

In the most primitive society, the horde [clans] is everything; the children are even of their property. This way, when evolving the Family these hordes were displaced, by the improvement of the upbringing of the offspring; in such a way, when the clans and the tribes went arising, they were also replaced by social elements of better quality.

The sexual desire and the maternal affection settle down the Family. Now, the True Government doesn't appear until it doesn't begin to gestate the big groups of super-families. In the times of the hordes, previous to the family, the leadership was provided by individuals that were chosen informally. The African Bushmen never progressed of this primitive stage. They don't have caciques.

The families united for consanguineous knots in the clans and relatives' groups; and these ones later evolved by consequence in tribes, in territorial communities. The war and the external pressure forced the clans of relatives to a tribal organization, but it was the trade and the exchange what maintained together these premature primitive groups with certain degree of internal peace.

The Peace in URANTIA can be promoted by the “Free International Commercial Distribution”, and it is much better than all the sentimental fallacies from the visionary formulations of plans for the world peace. Due to that the commercial relationships have been facilitated by the development of the Language and the improved methods of Communication, as well as the advance of the Transport.

The absence of a “Common Language” has always impeded the progress of the peaceful nations; but the “Currency” has become the global language of the modern trade. The modern society stays united mainly for the “Industrial trade”. The “Gain” motive is a powerful civilizer, as long as it provides combination with the desire of SERVING.

In the primitive ages, each tribe was surround of concentric circles of growing “fear” and intense “distrust”; therefore, it ended up being a custom to kill the strangers and later on they enslaved them. The old concept of “friendship” meant the adoption to the clan. They believed that the affiliation to the clan allowed them to survive the death. It was one of the most primitive concepts in the “eternal life”.

The adoption ceremony consisted on drinking the blood of another. In some groups saliva was exchanged, instead of drinking the blood, being this the old origin of the modern social usage of “kissing”. All the “association ceremonies”, being marriage or adoption, always ended up in feasting.

In later times, the blood was used diluted with the red wine, and later, only the wine was drank in order to seal the “adoption” ceremony that was symbolized with the crash of cups of wine and the total sip of the drink. Hebrews used a modified form of these adoption ceremonies. Their Arab ancestors used the “oath”, while the candidate's hand rested on the tribal genital organs of the native one. Hebrews tried kindly and fraternally to the “adoptive aliens”: “The stranger that dwells with you, will be like one born among you, and you shall love him as yourselves!”.

“The friendship towards the guest” was a relationship of temporary hospitality. When the guests left, a plate was broken on half, a piece was given to the friend that was leaving, so that it served as appropriate introduction for a third that could arrive to visit in the future. It was a habit that the guests paid for their demurrage, relating stories about their trips and adventures. The “narrators of stories” from the past were so popular as the established customs; later on, the residents prohibited that this worked during the seasons of hunting or the crop.

The first treaties of peace were “knots of blood”. The "Ambassadors of Peace" from two tribes in war met and paid honors; then, they proceeded to puncture their skin until bleeding, so they sucked the blood from each other and declared the peace.

The first missions of peace consisted on men's delegations that took their select maidens for the bonus of their old enemies, making use of the sexual appetite to combat the warlike impulse. This way, the honest tribe made another visit in return to correspond with its own maidens' offer; then, it was established the peace firmly. Soon it began to be sanctioned the marriages among the families of the caciques.
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4. THE CLANS AND THE TRIBES

The first peaceful group was the family then the clan, the tribe and much later the nation, which with the time ended up being the modern “territorial state”. It is very encouraging for the goal of the man's following great evolutionary escalade that the groups, peaceful nations from today, have expanded for a lot of time, extending and adhering in consanguineous knots and in union of races to include all the nations from the face of the earth. This, in spite of the fact that the nations of URANTIA continue unsuccessfully determined to spend considerable sums of human capital and material in preparations of war.

The clans were consanguineous groups inside the tribe, and their existence was due to common interests, as:

  1. Their origin went back to a common ancestor.
  2. They were loyal to a common religious totem.
  3. They spoke the same dialect.
  4. They shared a common dwelling.
  5. They feared the same enemies.
  6. They had a common military experience.

The headmen of the clan were always subordinated of the cacique of the tribe. The old tribal governments were a confederation of clans without cohesion. For it, the Australian aboriginal never developed a tribal form of government.

The peaceful caciques of the clan used to govern through the “maternal line”; and the warring caciques of the tribe settled down through the “paternal line”. The courts of the tribal caciques and primitive kings consisted on leaders of the clans whowere used to invite before the king's presence, several times a year; and this allowed him to watch them and win better their cooperation. The clans were valuably for the local auto-government, but they retarded thoroughly the development of big and strong nations.
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5. THE BEGINNINGS OF THE GOVERNMENT

All human institution has its genesis, so the “Civil Government” is product of a progressive and constant evolution; likewise, they are: the Marriage, the Industry and the Religion. It was starting from the first clans and primitive tribes that were gradually developed the human government's successive orders that have appeared and desappeared, until they were able to capture new forms of civil and social regulation that characterize the second third of the twenty century.

With the gradual emergence of the “family unities”, it sat down the government's foundations in the organization of the clan that were groupings of consanguineous families. The true and first government body was the “Council of Elders”. This regulator group was compound for “old men” that had been distinguished somehow efficiently. Until the most terrible man knew how to appreciate the “wisdom” and the “experience”, from there came a lingering gerontocracies age, the domain of the “old men”. But gradually this oligarchic reign of the advanced age became the “patriarchal” concept.

In the Council of Elders originally was the potential of all the government functions: The Executive, the Legislative and the Judicial one. When the Council interpreted the effective customs, it was the Tribunal Body; when it established the new ways of the social usage, it was the Legislative Body; and when it was made complete these agreed ordinances and promulgations, it was the Executive Body. The president of the advice was one of the future tribal cacique's predecessors.

Some tribes had “Council of Women” and from time to time many tribes had ruling women. But the Red Man American tribes conserved the teachings of ONAMONALONTON [sage and redeemer among the American Red Men, approximately about 65,000 years ago, that inhabited among the big redwoods of California; their descendants arrived until these times among the Indians of the Blackfoot], and they followed only the régime of the “Council of Seven”.

It has been very difficult for the humanity to learn that an unstable and stagnated society cannot govern the war or the peace. The primitive “debates” rarely were useful. The old race didn't delay in learning, that an army commanded by a “group of chiefs” of clan, didn't have possibility to triumph against a strong army commanded by “only one man”. This way, the war has always been a “kingmaker”.

In a principle the “chiefs of war” were only chosen for the service of the army, and they used to give up during the peacetimes, since their duties were rather of social character. But gradually, they began to interfere in the intervals of peace, dilating their service to continue ruling from one war to the other. Even they often were in charge that it didn't last so much time the interim between successive wars. These primitive “chiefs of war” were not fond of the peace.

Later on some caciques were chosen for other services, besides the military services; and they were selected taking into account the hefty and strong physique or outstanding personal aptitudes. The Men of Red Race often had two groups of caciques -the Sachems or “caciques of peace”, and the hereditary “warring caciques”. The governors of the peace were also judges and teachers... Some primitive communities were governed by “quack doctors” that sporadically acted as caciques. Then, a single man acted as priest, doctor and as supreme executive. Very often the first real badges had been the symbols or emblems of the priestly vestments.

It was by means of these steps that went gradually arising the existence the government's “Executive Branch”. The Clan and the Tribal Councils continued in their quality of advisors and as predecessors of the “Legislative Branch” and “Judicial Branch” that flourished later. In today's Africa, all this forms of primitive government are still in material existence in many tribes.
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6. THE MONARCHIC GOVERNMENT

It was only reached an effective State Regime when a boss reached full executive authority. The man discovered that the effective government could be reached when conferring the power to a personality, and not being founded in ideas.

The “sovereignty” was born from the concept of authority or family wealth. When a patriarchal kinglet became a true king, he was sometimes called the “father of his people”. Later on, it was believed that these kings had arisen from the heroes, and even later on, the sovereignty ended up being “hereditary”, due to the dogma of the divine origin of the kings.

The “hereditary monarchy” avoided the “anarchy” that so many havocs had made previously between the death of a king and its successor's election. The Family had a biological head; the Clan had a selected natural leader; but the Tribe and the State later on didn't have any natural leader, and this was an additional reason to constitute another motive for which they ended up being hereditary the “cacique-kings”. The idea of the “real families” and the “aristocracy” was also based on the established customs of the “title of property” in the clans.

Later, it ended up considering over-natural the succession of the kings; it was believed mistakenly that the real blood went back at the times of the one hundred materialized retinues from the Planetary Prince CALIGASTIA, [Headed for Daligastia, associated of the Prince; had installed five hundred thousand years ago approximately and after five hundred thousand years approximately of the appearance of the man's intelligent life. This happened in the region of the Persian Gulf that later corresponded to Mesopotamia; being founded there the central headquarters called DALAMATIA, in honor to Daligastia. They were assigned to carry out missions to promote the evolutionary escalades of the human races; numerous legends originated from them, that later were confused with the missions of Adam and Eve]. This way the kings became fetish personalities and they were feared in great way, reason why a special form of language was adopted for the court usage. Even in recent times, it was believed that touching a king cured the illnesses, and in some towns of URANTIA, they still consider that their rulers have divine origin.

Very soon, the king primitive fetish was often preserved in isolation; because he was considered too sacred to be contemplated except by the festival and sacred days. Usually somebody was named so that he made the representative role of the “king”, and this is the origin of the first Ministers. The first official of the cabinet was an “Administrator of Foods”; the other officials appeared little time later. The governors didn't take long in naming designated representatives so that they took charge of the “Trade” and the “Religion”; and the development of the “cabinet” constituted a direct step toward the depersonalization of the Executive authority. These assistants of the primitive kings became the grateful nobility, and the “king’s” wife ascended gradually to the “queen” dignity. This way he women arrived to be sustained with more esteem.

The unscrupulous sovereigns won great power by the discovery of the poison. The magic of the primitive “courts” was perverse; then, the enemies of the kings suddenly died. But reciprocally, the autocrat more tyrant was subordinated to some restrictions, for what they were hindered by the constant fear of being murdered. The quack doctors, the witchdoctors and the priests always represented a powerful control for the kings. Later on the landowners and the aristocracy exercised a controling influence; and from time, to time the clans and the tribes simply rebelled and overthrew their despotic and tyrannic sovereign. In many cases the sovereigns were deposed to death penalty, and often they were given the option of committing suicide, which gave origin to the social primitive style of the suicide under certain circumstances.
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7. THE PRIMITIVE CLUBS AND THE SECRET SOCIETIES

The Consanguinity determined the first social groups, and the Association enlarged the consanguineous clan. The “marriages” among members of different clans constituted the next step in the expansion of the “groups”, and from that resulted a complex tribe that was the first and true Political Entity. The following advance in the social development was the evolution of the Religious Cults and the Political Clubs. Both appeared for first time with character of “secret societies” and originally both were totally of “religious character”; and later, on these two ended up being of “regulator character”. In a principle they were men's clubs and later women's clubs appeared. Recently, they were divided in two classes: sociopolitical and religious-mystic.

There were many reasons to maintain these primitive societies in “secret”, such as:

  1. The fear of incurring in the displeasure of the governors, due to the transgression of some taboo.
  2. To practice minority religious rites.
  3. The purpose of preserving valuable “mystic” or “trade ” secrets .
  4. To enjoy of some amulet or special charm.

The quality of the secret of these societies conferred their members the power of the “mystery” over the rest of the tribe. The quality of the secret also attracted the vanity; the initiate of such societies were formed by the social aristocracy of the time. After the initiation, the youths could already hunt with the adults; considering that before, they had to pick up vegetables with the women. It was a supreme humiliation, a dishonor before the tribe that one of them was not able to pass the tests of the puberty, being this way forced to remain outside of the activities of the males, to be together to the women and children, and they were considered effeminate. Also, those candidates were not allowed to get married.

The primitive men taught their adolescents the sexual continence. It ended up being a habit to separate the male youths from their parents since the puberty until the marriage, commending their education and formation to the secret societies of the men. One of the main functions of these “clubs” was the control of adolescent males, preventing that illegitimate children were born.

The “marketed prostitution” began when these clubs of these men began to pay with money the usufruct of the women of other tribes. But the most primitive groups were notably free of that sexual condition.

The ceremony of the “initiation of puberty” used to last a five year period. There were in these ceremonies a lot of self-torture and painful incisions. It was practiced the circumcision firstly as a way of initiation rite in some of these secret institutions. It was also part of the initiation of the puberty to be carved the tribal marks in the body; this way, it was originated the tattoos as affiliation symbol. These tortures and privations had the purpose of strengthening these youths, recording in their minds the reality of the life and showing them the unavoidable annoyances. This objective was achieved better after lingering time by the physical athletic and fair games.

But the secret societies tried to improve the moral sense of the adolescents; one of the main purposes of the pubertys ceremonies was to inculcate the boy that he should consider prohibited the wives of other males.

After years of rigorous discipline and training, exactly before the marriage, the youngs were put in freedom so that they enjoyed a brief period of leisure and entertainment. Later they should return to get married and undergo the rigors of the tribal taboos during the rest of their life. This primitive habit has continued until these modern times, as the absurd notion of passing to “the youthful disorderly life”.

Later on, many tribes sanctioned the formation of the “secret clubs of women” that had the purpose of preparing the adolescent girls to be wives and mothers; that after the initiation, these youths were capable for the marriage. Then they were allowed to attend the “introduction of brides”, and this was the promotion party in the societies of those times. Then, very soon began to appear the orders of women that made vote of chastity against the marriage.

Already in more recent times appeared the “non secrets clubs”; this happened when the single males began to group, and at the same time, the non committed women also grouped, forming their own organizations by separate. These associations were the “first schools” indeed. Although frequently the feminine and masculine clubs were harassed mutually. Some more advanced tribes, after the contact with the masters of DALAMATIA, experienced the mixed teaching, founding schools of boarding schools for both sexes.

The Secret Societies contributed mainly to the formation of the “social castes”, due to the mysterious character of their initiations. The members of these societies began first to use masks to frighten the onlookers that wanted to witness their mourning rites -the adoration of their ancestors. Later this rite became a pseudo session of spiritualism, in which it was speculated that “ghosts” appeared. The old societies of the “renaissance” used to use signs and a special secret language, and they also gave up solemnly to certain foods and drinks. They acted as night police, and also they acted in a wide range of social activities.

All the Secret Societies imposed an oath. They urged to each other of dependability and they taught to keep the secrets; these orders scared and controlled the throng; they also acted as societies of surveillances and made punishments. They were the first “spies” in the tribal wars, and they were the first “secret policemen” in times of peace. The best thing of everything for them was that they maintained the unscrupulous kings in an insecure throne. Then to counteract them, the kings fomented their own secret police's development.

These societies gave place to the first “political parties”. The first partisan government resulted from the “strongest” versus the “weakest”. In ancient times, it was not changed the administration until after a civil war, giving abundant test that the weak ones had become strong ones.

The merchants used these clubs to charge their “debts”, and the sovereigns used them to collect “taxes”. The burden of “taxes” has constituted a lingering fight, figuring among the first forms of them the “tithe”, a tenth part the hunt or the booty. Originally the taxation was burdened to maintain the king's house, but it was discovered that it was easier when the tax was disguised as an offering to support the service of the temple.

With the time, these Secret Societies became the first “charitable organizations”, and later they evolved to end up being the first “religious societies” -the predecessors of the churches. Finally, some of these societies extended to the intertribal environment, being formed from there the first international confraternities.
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8. THE SOCIAL CLASSES

The mental and physical inequality of the human beings guarantee the appearance of the “social classes”. The only planets that don't have social strata are the most primitive and the most advanced. In such a way that a civilization in their beginnings has not still begun the differentiation of the social levels; while in a world that is settling down already in the ERA OF LIGHT AND LIFE, it has erased in great percentage these divisions of the humankind that is so characteristic from all the intermediate evolutionary phases.

The measure that the society emerged from savagery, passing trough the barbarism; their human components tend in to group in varied social classes, because of the following reasons:

  1. Natural -The contact, the consanguinity and the marriage. The first social classes were based on the sex, the age and the blood -the relationship with the cacique.
  2. Personal -The recognition of the abilities, the resistance, the knowledge and the rightness; and very soon it continued the recognition of the domain of the language, the science and the intelligence in general.
  3. Fortuitous -The war and the emigration generated the division of human groups. The Conquest, the relationship of the conqueror with the conquered influenced strongly in the evolution of classes; the slavery caused the first general division of societies: free and captive.
  4. Economic -The rich and the poor. The wealth and the possession of slaves was the hereditary base for one class of society.
  5. Geographic -The classes arose as a result of the urban or rural colonization. The city and the field, respectively, have contributed to the differentiation from the “shepherd-farmer” and the “merchant-industrial” with their points of view and divergent reactions.
  6. Social -The classes were formed gradually in agreement with the popular appreciation of the social value from different groups. The first divisions of this nature were the differentiations between the Priests and Teachers, among the Governors and Warriors, between the Capitalists and Merchants and the common Workers with the Slaves. The “slave” could never end up being capitalist, but already as “salaried”, he could opt to be integrated to the capitalist sector.
  7. Vocational- In the measure that the vocations were multiplied, these spread to settle down “castes” and “guilds”. The Workers were divided in three groups: the “professional classes”, even the “quack doctors” then the “skilled workers” and continued by the “unskilled workers”.
  8. Religious -The first Secret Clubs made their own classes inside the clans and tribes, but the pity and the mysticism of the priests were perpetuated for a lot of time like a separate social group.
  9. Racial -The presence of two or more races inside a certain nation or territorial unit usually produces chaste of color. The original system of chaste from the India was based on the color, as well as it was at the beginning in Egypt.
  10. Age -The youth and the maturity. Among the tribes, the boy remained under the custody of his father, while this was alive; on the other hand, the girl was under the care of her mother until she got married.

It is indispensable for an evolutionary society that the social classes be flexible and versatile. But when the Classes become in Caste, and when they petrify the social levels; then, the only thing that is left is to establish the improvement of the social stability trough the small Personal Initiative. The “social caste” solves the problem when signing up to each individual in the industry, this at the same time, reduces emphatically the individual's intimate evolutive development and also annuls almost completely the “social cooperation”.

The “classes” of the society being established in natural way will remain until the man achieves gradually and wisely his elimination-transformation, and this is carried out by the correct administration for the evolutive support of all the Biological, Intellectuals and Spiritual potentialities of a great civilization in progress; they are:

  1. The Biological Transformation of the racial linage -The selective Eradication-Transformation of the great multiplicity of inferior humans, eradicating many and unjust inequalities of the mortal man.
  2. The Ascendant Education that amplified the intellectual potential, activating the "Nuclear Mind", accompanied by the biological progress.
  3. The rebirth of the Ascendant Religion from the motives for Unity and the Global Fraternity of the earthly man.

These measures cannot give its true and elevated fruits but through big millennium processes; although, the social improvement would immediately result trough a correct administration of these factors of acceleration from the cultural progress, as long as it be Intelligent, Wise, Flexible and mainly in Order, Light and Love. The “Ascendant Religion”[that is reveling] is a powerful lever that can take out and rise the civilization from the chaos; but this would be impotent separated from the entire and healthy support of minds that rest firmly on a rich natural estate of elevated intentions and altruist motives. [Top]

9. THE HUMAN RIGHTS

The nature confers none “Right” to the man, but it confers “Life” and a world in where to Live it. The nature doesn't even confer the right to Live, just as it could be deduced if we consider what would happen if a defenseless man met a hungry tiger front to front in a primitive forest. Therefore the Security is the primordial gift that the society grants to the man.

The Society gradually designed and made worth their Rights and until nowadays are:

  1. The Guarantee of the Food Supply.
  2. The Military Defense -The transitory security while gets ready for the achievement of the Global Unity.
  3. The Preservation of the Interior Peace -The prevention of the personal violence and the social disorder.
  4. The Sexual Education -The marriage, the family institution.
  5. The Property - The right to be the owner.
  6. The Promotion of the Competitiveness between individuals and groups; as traffic for the realization of the Global Cooperation.
  7. The Provision of the Education and Training of the youth.
  8. The Promotion of the Interchange and Commerce -The Industrial Development.
  9. The Constant Improvement of the Labor Conditions and Retributions.
  10. The Guarantee of the Freedom and the Religious Practice so all of these other social activities be elevated by the acquisition of the spiritual motivation.

When the rights are so old that are ignored their origin, they are usually denominated Natural Rights. But the “Human Rights” are not really natural; they are entirely “Socials”. These are totally relative and very constantly change; because they are not more than the “game rules” of this civilization in advance -Are adaptations, grateful adjustments of the relationships that govern the phenomena in the always changing life and the human competitive fight to survive.

What may be considered as correct for a time cannot be considered so in another time. The survival of big quantities of “abnormal” and “degenerate” people doesn't depend on that they are entitled to the natural right to obstruct the civilization in advance of the present century; but because simply, this way is decreed by the society of this time -The Established Customs.

Few Human Rights were recognized during the European Middle Ages; then, all man belonged to other and the rights were not more than privileges or favors granted by the State or the Church. The revolutions that arose from this error were equally erroneous since it was from the belief that all the men are “born equal”.

The “weak” and the “inferiors” have always fight for equal rights than the other ones; they have always insisted in that the State should force the “strong” and “superiors” to solve or alleviate their necessities; and otherwise, they insist to be recompensed from their deficiencies which very often are the natural result of their own indifference and abandonment.

But this ideal of the “equality” is the elevated fruit of a super civilization in Order, Light and Love; and this is not in the nature. Even the culture itself demonstrates in an overwhelming way the inherent inequality among the men, through its different and unequal cultural capacities. An abrupt execution and without going by the evolutionary processes of the supposed “natural equality”, would violently precipitate the civilized man to the rough usages of the primitive ages again. The Society cannot offer the “equal rights” to all, but it can commit to administer the “varied rights” to each one with all Transparency and Equity. The Ministration and the Duty of the society are to provide the children of the nature the fair and peaceful opportunities to get the Self-Conservation, participating in the Self-Perpetuation and at the same time, enjoying certain degree of Auto-Gratification. The sum of the three constitutes the authentic happiness of the earthly man. [Top]

10. THE EVOLUTION OF THE JUSTICE

The “Natural Justice” is an artificial theory elaborated by the man, it is not a reality. In the nature, the man's justice is purely theoretical, fictitious. But what the universal nature offers is Balance; that it is the unavoidable comfort from effects of the causes.

The justice, as conceived by the man means to demand his rights, and this way he believes to get his evolutive progress. The concept of the “Justice” can only be constituent and realized in a mind endowed with an elevated spirit, and this doesn't emerge to the existence with its entire splendor in the material worlds of the space and time.

The primitive man attributed all the phenomena to people. This way, in the case of death the primitive man didn’t asked “What killed it?”, or “Who did it?”. Still was not recognized the “accidental murder”; therefore, the “condemnation for crimes” was disregarded completely. It was given remiss attention to the offender's motives; the agreement trial was only emitted with the damage made.

In the most primitive society, the “Public Opinion” worked in a direct way, and the officials of the law were not necessary, there was not privacy in the primitive life. The neighbors of an individual were responsible for the behavior of him; from there the right of interfering in the personal matters. Then, the society was regulated on the base of the theory that the number of affiliation of a group should possess an interest in each member's behavior, and until certain degree, control over them.

In these primitive times, it was believed that the “ghosts” administered the justice through the quack doctors and priests; they were constituted this way in the first orders in detecting the delinquency and serving as officials of the law. Their primitive methods of detection of the delinquency consisted on making tests of the poison, fire and pain. These wild tests were not more than rough arbitration techniques, and they didn't necessarily arbitrate the disputes in a fair way, for example: when it was administered poison to an accused one, if this one vomited, he was innocent...

In the Old Testament one of these tests consists; this way, the test of guilt for matrimonial infidelity: If a man suspected that his wife was unfaithful, he took her before the priest and he exposed his suspicions, and the priest prepared a repugnant mixture; after a forced ceremony that understood in lowering curses to the accused wife, she was forced to drink the repugnant potion: “The water that causes the curse will enter in her and will become bitter, her stomach will be inflated and will be rotted her thighs, then the woman will be cursed among her town”, and if by any chance, some woman drank this whole dirty beverage without manifest symptoms of physical illness, she was acquitted from the charges made by her jealous husband.

These atrocious methods of detection of the crime were practiced for almost all the tribes in evolution in some moment or another. Then much later, being beaten in “duel” was the most modern survival in the trial for dispute.

It is not surprising that Hebrews and other semi civilized tribes practiced such a primitive techniques of administration of justice until hardly three thousand years ago; but it is much more astonishing that these “thinking men” from that time would retain such relics of the barbarism in the pages of their collections of Sacred Writings. But today, with the modern and reflexive thought, it should be revealed that no Divine Being ever gave the earthly man such unjust and perverse instructions with respect to detections and punishments before the suspicion of matrimonial infidelity or other condemnations.

Before the evident, the society soon adopted a vengeful attitude of reprisals: “eye by eye, life by life”. For then, all the evolving tribes would recognize this right of vengeance of blood. The “vengeance” became the objective of the primitive life, but the religion had already begun to modify considerably these terrible primitive tribal practices before the statements of their religious teachers that proclaimed: “The vengeance is mine, says the Lord”. The slaughters for vengeance in the primitive times were not so different from the current murders that are carried out so pretext as the still unwritten law.

The “suicide” was a common way of vengeance. They believed that when somebody could not retaliate in life, it committed suicide believing that it would return and discharge its anger over its enemy, in its ghost condition. Since it was generalized this belief, the single threat of committing suicide to retaliate their enemy from the threshold, used to be enough to make it give up. The primitive man didn't appreciate the “life”; even suicides happened because of insignificances and this was common; but the teachings of the DALAMATIANS reduced these fatal customs considerably; while in more recent times the Entertainment, the Comfort, the Religion and the Philosophy were united to sweeten the life and make it more desirable. It results that the “strikes of hunger” that happen today in the world are, however, a refined current similar case of this old method of reprisal or vengeance.

One of the advanced first formulations of the tribal law was related with the mediation of the tribe among the bloody family enmities. But, for stranger that it seems, even in those times a man could kill his wife without receiving punishment, as long as he had totally paid an amount for her. The Eskimos of today, however, still leaves that the punishment of a crime, inclusive the murder, be administered and decreed by the wronged family.

Another advance was the imposition of “penalties” for taboos violations -the provision of penalties. These penalties constituted the first public revenues. The usage of paying money like “rescue” for the life also entered in vogue as substitute of the cruel vengeance. These damages used to be paid with women or livestock; and it took a lot of time so that the penalties, with monetary retribution, settled down as real punishment for the delinquency. And since the punishment idea became a monetary compensation essentially, then all the things, including the human life, came to have with the time a price that should be paid in the future as damages. The Hebrews were the first ones in abolishing the usage of paying money as rescue for other people's life. Moses taught that they shouldn’t “Take money as rescue for the life from a murderer condemned to death since that man could die unfailingly”...

This way the Justice, in a principle was administered by the family, then for the clan and later for the tribe. The true administration of justice dates from when the “vengeance” was removed from the hands of the individuals and the consanguineous groups; then, it was deposited in the hands of the Social Group -The State.

Burning alive somebody in the blaze was a cruel punishment of common practice. This was recognized by many old chiefs, inclusive Hammurabi and Moses, who administered many crimes, particularly those of serious sexual character; and it was punished with them burning in the blaze. If “the daughter of a priest” or any other outstanding citizen was dedicated to the public prostitution, the Hebrew habit was to “burn her in the blaze”.

The “treason” the selling out or the betrayal of the tribal associates was the first capital crime. The “stealing”, that is the cattle theft, was punished generally with the summary death, and until recently it was punished in a similar way the theft of horses. And with the step of the time, it was known that the “severity of the punishment” was not a dissuasive factor as effective as it was the certainty and the speed of its execution.

When a society is not able to sanction the crimes, the collective resentment usually made its way in form of “disturbances”; for it, the provision of “sanctuaries” served as a way of escape before the sudden pressures of the collective anger. The revolts and protests represent the “opposition” from the individual when differing with a particular amendment of the State. [Top]

11. THE LAWS AND THE TRIBUNALS

It is not simple to trace clear distinctions between the “Established Customs” and the “Laws”; this is as demonstrating with mathematical precision when the night preside the day. The customs are laws and regulations regulators elaborated by processes of discernments. When the “Indefinite Customs” take too much time in vigor, these tend to crystallize in Precise Laws, in Concrete Regulations and in very defined Social Conventions.

The “Law” in a principle is always negative and prohibitive. In the advanced civilizations the law becomes more and more positive and flexibly directive; and in the primitive societies, it worked in a negative way since only were limited to give the right of living imposing the commandments to “others”, but “not” to themselves. All grant of rights or freedoms to an individual involve to all the other ones, and this was carried out initially by the taboos that are the primitive laws. All concept of the taboo is inherently negative, since the primitive society was also completely negative in its organization; therefore, the primitive administration of the justice consisted on the vigorous application of the taboos. These laws were originally only applied to the members of a neighboring tribe, just as the Hebrews demonstrate it on more recent times, who had different ethics codes to treat the egregious.

The “oath” originated in the times of DALAMATIA, in an effort to give truer testimonies; and these oaths consisted on decreeing condemnations to himself, since formerly no individual wanted to testify against his native group.

While the “delinquency” constituted an aggression to the tribal customs, the “sin” was the transgression of the taboos imposed by supposed ghosts, but confusion existed during a lot of time due to the failure of controlling the delinquency and the sin.

The “interest to oneself” established the taboo against the assassination and the “society sanctioned it as a traditional habit, while the “religion” consecrated this habit with the moral law; and the three conspired this way to make the surest and viable human life. The society could not have been maintained united, during these primitive times, if its rights had not had the back up of the religion; since the superstition was always the police-moral-social force of the lingering evolutionary ages. All the tribal “Elders” always affirmed that formerly the gods had given them the laws, the taboos to their ancestors.

The “Law” is a coded registration of the extensive human experience, it is also the crystallized and legalized Public Opinion; and the “Established Customs” were the raw material of the accumulated experience, with which the ruling minds could formulate the written laws. Therefore, the old judge didn't have laws; when failing, simply he said: “It is Custom”.

The concerning to all the precedent of the Court Decisions represents the effort of the Judges to adapt the laws written to the changing and persistent conditions of the society. That said previously, demands a constant and progressive adaptation before these changing conditions of the society, togetherly with the imposing character of the traditional continuity.

The disputes about the “property” were managed in many ways, such as:

  1. By the destruction -Of the property in dispute.
  2. By the force -The arguers began a fight body to body.
  3. By the arbitration -A third decided.
  4. By the appeal to the “Elders” -Later to the Courts.

The first “Tribunals” were pugilistic encounters regulated, and the “Judges” were strictly the referees. They were on charge that the fight was made of agreement with the approved regulations. When beginning a judicial combat, each part had to leave a deposit with the judge in order to pay the costs and the penalty after the dispute, when one defied the other. Then, the “Force gives the Right”. But later, the “Verbal Discussions” substituted the physical blows.

All concept of the primitive justice is based not so much on being exactly fair but in granting the dispute, impeding this way the public disorder and the private violence. The primitive man didn't suffer so much for what today is known as injustice; but it was given by a fact that those that had the power took advantage from it selfishly. Nevertheless, We can determine the quality of an entire civilization and accurately, only examining meticulously the justness of their Tribunals and the integrity of their Judges.
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12. THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE CIVIL AUTHORITY

The great fight in the Government's evolution has been related a lot with the concentration of the “power”. The Administrators, the Divine Hierarchies of the Grand Universe, know for own experience that there are regulated much better the evolutionary towns of all the inhabited planets, by the type of “REPRESENTATIVE CIVIL GOVERNMENT”; and this only works when is kept the equilibrium of the power and correct coordination among the Executive, Legislative and Judicial Branches.

Although the primitive authority was based on the “force”, in the physical power; the Ideal Government is based on the “representative system” where the leadership is founded in the “dexterity”; but in the days of the barbarism there was too much war to allow the Representative Government to work in an effective way. In the lingering fight between the distribution of the authority and the unit of the control, the dictator won. The primitive and diffuse powers from the first “Elders Council” concentrated gradually on the person of an absolute king. After the appearance of the real kings, the groups of Elders subsisted as a “body of advisors”, almost legislative and judicial. Later on, appeared the “legislative” organs of coordinative character for the first time; and finally, the “Supreme Tribunals of Justice” settled down independently from the legislatures.

The king was the executioner of the “established customs”, that is to say of the original or not written law; and later he made complete the “legislative promulgations”, crystallizing the “public opinion”. Although it arose gradually the important development of the “popular assembly” that constituted a great social advance as the expression of the public opinion!.

The first kings were largely restricted by the established customs -By the Tradition or the Public Opinion. In recent times, some nations of URANTIA [The Earth] have decoded these customs in their government letter.

The inhabitants of URANTIA are entitled to the Liberty; they should create their government systems. They should adopt their constitutions or other constituent letters of civil authority and also their administrative procedures. Having fulfilled the above said, they should select their best representatives and that they be worthy of being Executive Supreme. For representatives of the Legislative Branch should only be chosen those that are intellectual and morally qualified to carry out these sacred responsibilities. For Judges of the Supreme and Superior Tribunals it should be chosen only those that are endowed with natural aptitudes and to those who have ended up being wise by plethoric experiences.

For the men to conserve their Liberty, after having chosen their Constituent Letter of Liberty, they must have a prudential, intelligent and bold interpretation, in order to avoid:

  1. The unjustified usurpation of the power by the Executive Branch or Legislative Branch.
  2. The machinations of ignorant and superstitious agitators.
  3. The delay of the Scientific Progress.
  4. The stagnation of the dominance of the mediocrity.
  5. The dominance for the vicious minorities.
  6. The control for ambitious and astute candidates to be dictators.
  7. The disastrous disruption of panics.
  8. The exploitation for the unscrupulous.
  9. The imposition of the tributary slavery of the citizenship for the State.
  10. The lack of Social and Economic Justice.
  11. The coalition of the Church and the State.
  12. The loss of the Personal Liberty.

These are the objectives and goals of the “Constitutional Tribunals” that act as governors on the Representative Government's machinery in a world that is in an evolutive advance.

The constant fights of the humanity to perfect the Government in URANTIA is related with the improvement of the ways of the Administration; with adaptations to the current necessities of the life that constantly are changing, with the improvement of the distribution of the three powers inside the Government and finally with the selection of the best administrative leaders that are truly wise and highly altruistic. Although it exist a Divine and Ideal form of Government, this one cannot reveal unless it is discovered in a very laborious way the men and women of good will of each planet through the Universes of the Time and Space. [With the collaboration of a Melchizedeck of Nebadon].

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